توسعه مدل رفتار مصرف‌کننده در بیمه‌های زندگی "تحقیقی مبتنی بر نظریه داده بنیاد"

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 گروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 گروه مدیریت بازرگانی،دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 گروه انسان شناسی، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

درک رفتار خرید بیمه گذاران، نقشی مهمی در توسعه بیمه های زندگی ایفا می کند. بنابراین در تحقیق پیش رو، با استفاده از رویکرد کیفی و راهبرد نظریه داده بنیاد کوربین و اشتراوس ویرایش چهارم، در پی ارائه مدلی برای تبیین رفتار خرید بیمه های زندگی در ایران در زمینه ای ازشرایط کلان اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی ...، و شرایط خرد و فردی هستیم. به منظور دخیل کردن دیدگاههای متنوع، مشارکت کنندگان با استفاده از فرآیند نمونه گیری نظری از بین بیمه گذاران بالقوه و بالفعل، نمایندگان فروش، بازاریابان و کارشناسان بیمه های زندگی انتخاب گردیدند. مصاحبه های عمیق نیمه ساختار یافته به عنوان ابزار جمع آوری داده ها با 27 نمونه تا رسیدن به اشباع نظری ادامه یافت. داده ها در فرآیندی نظام مند از کد گذاری باز، کدگذاری محوری و کد گذاری انتخابی(در نرم افزار Maxqda 12) به توسعه مدل رفتار خرید بیمه های زندگی انجامید. در این مدل، ارتباطات و تعاملات به عنوان مقوله محوری، در بطن رفتار خرید بیمه های زندگی، اعم از شکل گیری اعتماد، نگرش، مقاصد رفتاری و اقدام، نقش بنیادینی ایفا می نماید، تا حدی که رفتار خرید بیمه های زندگی را فرآیندی ارتباط محور و مبتنی بر تعاملات چند سویه می داند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developing a Model of Consumer behavior in Life Insurance "A study based on Grounded Theory"

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hosseinali Bakhtiar Nasrabadi 1
  • Tahmours Hasangholipour yasouri 2
  • Sayyed Abolghasem Mira 3
  • AbouAli Vedadhir 4
1 PhD Candidate, Business Management Department, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Business Management Department, Faculty of Management , University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Business Management Department, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran
4 Anthropology Department, Faculty of Social Science, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Understanding the behavior of life insurance policyholders is important in formulating effective marketing strategies and developing life insurance penetration rate. Therefore, this research employed a qualitative approach using the Corbin and Straus' grounded theory (4th Edition) to develop a model in which we explain buying behavior of life insurances in economic, social, cultural and micro or individual contexts in Iran. In order to bring in diverse perspectives in the research, the participants were selected among prospect and actual policyholders, sales representatives, marketers and life insurance experts using the theoretical sampling process. The semi-structured deep interviews were utilized with 27 samples to reach theoretical saturation. The analysis of data in a systematic process of open coding, axial coding and selective coding using the analyzing strategies of questioning, comparisons, and the memos, diagrams, and paradigm tools (Through Maxqda 12 software) concluded to the life insurance buying behavior model (LIBBM). In this model, communication and interactions as an axial category play a fundamental role in the life insurance buying behavior including trust-building, attitude formation, behavioral intentions and taking action, to the extent which considers the behavior as a communication-oriented process based on the multifaceted interactions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "life insurance"
  • "buying behavior"
  • "communications and interactions"
  • "Grounded Theory"
بختیارنصرآبادی، حسینعلی؛ حسنقلی‌پوریاسوری، طهمورث؛ ودادهیر، ابوعلی و میرا، سید ابولقاسم (1399). تبیین دیالکتیک تردید و اعتماد در رفتار خرید بیمه زندگی: مطالعه‌ای مبتنی بر نظریه داده‌بنیاد، فصلنامه پژوهشنامه بیمه، در دست داوری.

ترابی، فاطمه؛ رحیمی‌نیک، اعظم؛ اسماعیل‌پور، حسن و ودادی، احمد (1398). تبیین مدل رفتار خرید مصرف‌کننده در انتخاب محصولات لذت‌بخش با رویکرد آمیخته (مورد مطالعه: فروشگاه‌های زنجیره‌ای همواره تخفیف). مطالعات رفتار مصرف‌کننده.  6(1)،81-104.

عباس‌زاده، حسن؛ عالم‌تبریز، اکبر، ایران‌دوست، منصور و صلواتی، عادل (1398). برندسازی جهت خلق ارزش مصرف‌کننده در نظام بانکی کشور. مطالعات رفتار مصرف‌کننده، 6 (1)، 193-211.

Abbaszadeh, H., Alamtabriz, A., Irandoost, M., & Salavati, A. (2019). Branding to create consumer value in the Iranian banking system. Journal of Consumer Behavior Studies, 6(1), 193–211.

Babin, B. J., Griffin, M., Borges, A., & Boles, J. S. (2013). Negative emotions, value and relationships: Differences between women and men. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20(5), 471–478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2013.04.007

Bakhtiar Nasrabadi, H., Hasangholipoor, T., Vedadhir, A. A., & Mira, S. A. (2019). Explanation of dialectic of skepticism and trust in the buying behavior of life insurance consumers «A Grounded Theory Study». Iranian Journal of Insurance Research.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191

Bejou, D., Ennew, C. T., & Palmer, A. (2015). Trust, Ethics and Relationship Satisfaction (pp. 226–227). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13147-4_57

Bennett, R., & Barkensjo, A. (2005). Relationship quality, relationship marketing, and client perceptions of the levels of service quality of charitable organisations. International Journal of Service Industry Management (16). https://doi.org/10.1108/ 09564230510587168

Black, K., Skipper, H. D., & Black, K. (2015). Life insurance (Fifteenth). Atlanta, GA: Lucretian, LLC; Subsequent edition.

Blech, G., & Blech, M. (2008). Advertising and Promotion: An IMC Perspective. In Advertising and promotion: an integrated marketing communications perspective (8th ed, p. 838). Boston: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from https://www.worldcat.org/title/ advertising-and-promotion-an-integrated-marketing-communications-perspective/ oclc/226304772

Bozic, B. (2017). Consumer trust repair: A critical literature review. European Management Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2017.02.007

Brady, M. K., Bourdeau, B. L., & Heskel, J. (2005). The importance of brand cues in intangible service industries. Journal of Services Marketing, 19(6), 401–410.

Brighetti, G., Lucarelli, C., & Marinelli, N. (2014). Do emotions affect insurance? Review of Behavioral Finance, 6(2), 136–154. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1108/RBF-04-2014-0027

Buttle, F. . (2009). Customer Relationship Management (2nd ed). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Camerer, C. ., Loewestein, G., & Prelec, D. (2004). Neuroeconomics: why economics needs brains. Neuroeconomics: Why Economics Needs Brains, 106(3), 555–579.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory. A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. Statewide Agricultural Land Use Baseline 2015 (Vol. 1). https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Chikweche, T., & Fletcher, R. (2013). Customer relationship management at the base of the pyramid: Myth or reality? Journal of Consumer Marketing, 30(3), 295–309. https://doi.org/10.1108/07363761311328964

Chou, S., & Chen, C.-W. (2018). The influences of relational benefits on repurchase intention in service contexts: the roles of gratitude, trust and commitment. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 33(5), 680–692. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBIM-08-2017-0187

Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13(1), 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00988593

Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research. [electronic resource]: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. SAGE Publications. Retrieved from http://srmo.sagepub.com.ezproxy.is.ed.ac.uk/view/basics-of-qualitative-research/SAGE.xml

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2015). Basics of Qualitative Research Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (Forth Edit). Thousand Oaks: CA: SAGE.

Delis, M. D., & Mylonidis, N. (2015). Trust, happiness, and households’ financial decisions. Journal of Financial Stability, 20, 82–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfs.2015.08.002

Dellande, S., Gilly, M. C., & Graham, J. L. (2004). Gaining compliance and losing weight: the role of the service provider in health care service. Journal of Marketing, 68(3), 78–91.

Dewnarain, S., Ramkissoon, H., & Mavondo, F. (2019). Social customer relationship management: An integrated conceptual framework. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 28(2), 172–188. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2018.1516588

Dimitriadis, S., & Stevens, E. (2008). Integrated customer relationship management for service activities: An internal/external gap model. Managing Service Quality, 18(5), 496–511. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520810898857

Dirks, K. T., Lewicki, R. J., & Zaheer, A. (2009). Reparing Relationships Within and Between Organizations: Building A Conceptual Foundation. Academy of Management Review, 34(1), 68–84. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2009.35713285

Ferrari, J. R., & Dovidio, J. F. (2000). Examining Behavioral Processes in Indecision: Decisional Procrastination and Decision-Making Style. Journal of Research in Personality, 34(1), 127–137. https://doi.org/10.1006/JRPE.1999.2247

Forbes, W., Hudson, R., Skerratt, L., & Soufian, M. (2015). Which heuristics can aid financial-decision-making? International Review of Financial Analysis, 42, 199–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.irfa.2015.07.002

Foster, B. D., & Cadogan, J. W. (2000). Relationship selling and customer loyalty: an empirical investigation. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 18(4), 185–199. https://doi.org/10.1108/02634500010333316

Gaganis, C., Hasan, I., Papadimitri, P., & Tasiou, M. (2019). National culture and risk-taking: Evidence from the insurance industry. Journal of Business Research, 97, 104–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JBUSRES.2018.12.037

Goodarzi, A., & Karkehabadi, A. (2017). Analyzing The Risks and Optimal Coverage of Universal Life Insurance: An Individual Insurance Demand Model. Journal of Marketing Investigation, 15(82), 52–72.

Grönroos, C. (2004a). The relationship marketing process: communication, interaction, dialogue, value. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 19(2), 99–113. https://doi.org/10.1108/08858620410523981

Grönroos, C. (2004b). The relationship marketing process: Communication, interaction, dialogue, value. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 19(2), 99–113. https://doi.org/10.1108/08858620410523981

Grönroos, C. (2009). Marketing as promise management: regaining customer management for marketing. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 24(5/6), 351–359. https://doi.org/10.1108/08858620910966237

He, D. (2011). Is there dynamic adverse selection in the life insurance market? Economics Letters, 112(1), 113–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ECONLET.2011.03.038

Heinonen, K. (2014). Multiple perspectives on customer relationships. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 32(6), 450–456. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-06-2014-0086

Ifcher, J., & Zarghamee, H. (2011). Happiness and Time Preference: The Effect of Positive Affect in a Random-Assignment Experiment. American Economic Review, 101(7), 3109–3129. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.101.7.3109

Irons, K., & Green, D. (1991). Insurance Marketing. London, England: The chartred Insurance Institute.

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: ‎Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (2018). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. In Experiments in Environmental Economics (Vol. 1, pp. 143–172). Econometric Society. https://doi.org/10.2307/1914185

Karimi, A. (2018). Insurance Generalities (New Version) (7th ed.). Tehran: Insurance Research Center, Central Insurance of I.R. Iran. https://doi.org/۳۶۸

Koufopoulos, K., & Kozhan, R. (2010). Optimal insurance under adverse selection and ambiguity aversion. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1732268

Lee, S. A., & Lee, M. (2017). Effects of relationship types on customers’ parasocial interactions. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 8(1), 133–147. https://doi.org/10.1108/jhtt-09-2016-0053

Lieber, E. M. J., & Skimmyhorn, W. (2018). Peer effects in financial decision-making. Journal of Public Economics, 163, 37–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JPUBECO.2018.05.001

Lin, J. C., & Hsieh, C. C. (2011). Modeling service friendship and customer compliance in high-contact service relationships. Journal of Service Management, 22(5), 607–631. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564231111174979

Lin, L., & Lu, C. (2010). The influence of corporate image, relationship marketing, and trust on purchase intention: the moderating effects of word‐of‐mouth. Tourism Review, 65(3), 16–34. https://doi.org/10.1108/16605371011083503

Lovelock, C. H., & Wirtz, J. (2011). Services marketing: people, technology, strategy. Prentice Hall.

Mathew, B., & Sivaraman, S. (2017). Cointegration and causality between macroeconomic variables and life insurance demand in India. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 12(4), 727–741. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJoEM-01-2016-0019

Mihart, C. (2012). Modelling the Influence of Integrated Marketing Communication on Consumer Behaviour: An Approach based on Hierarchy of Effects Concept. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 62, 975–980. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. sbspro.2012.09.166

Moorman, C., Deshpande, R., & Zaltman, G. (1993). Factors Affecting Trust in Market Research Relationships. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 81. https://doi.org/10.2307/1252059

Morse, J. M. (2015). Critical Analysis of Strategies for Determining Rigor in Qualitative Inquiry. Qualitative Health Research, 25(9), 1212–1222. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732315588501

Muradoglu, G., & Harvey, N. (2012). Behavioral finance: the role of psychological factors in financial decisions. Review of Behavioral Finance, 4(2), 68–80.

Nam, Y., & Hanna, S. D. (2019). The effects of risk aversion on life insurance ownership of single-parent households. Applied Economics Letters, 26(15), 1285–1288. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2018.1546044

Patton, M. Q., & Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Sage Publications. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books/about/Qualitative_Research_Evaluation_Methods.html?id=FjBw2oi8El4C

Ram, K. P., & Manoj, K. J. (2014). Consumer buying decisions models: A descriptive study. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 6(3), 335–351. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Bhawan/Downloads/IJIAS-14-129-05.pdf

Ranyard, R., & McHugh, S. (2012). Defusing the risk of borrowing: the psychology of payment protection insurance decision. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33(4), 738–748.

Reimann, M., & Bechara, A. (2010). The somatic marker framework as neurological theory of decision-making: review, conceptual comparisons, and future neuroeconomics research. Journal of Economic Psychology, 31(5), 767–776.

Remund, D. . (2010). Financial literacy explicated: the case for a clearer definition in an increasingly complex economy. Journal of Consumer Affairs, Special Issue: Financial Literacy, 44(2), 276–295.

Renström, H. (2014). We didn’t see it coming! Managerial challenges in silently fading processes. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 32(6), 534–550. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-01-2014-0008

Rick, S. (2011). Losses, gains, and brains: neuroeconomics can help to answer open questions about loss aversion. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21(4), 453–463.

Sapienza, P., Toldra-Simats, A., & Zingales, L. (2013). Understanding trust. Economic Journal, 123(573), 1313–1332. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecoj.12036

Sashi, C. M. M. (2012). Customer engagement, buyer‐seller relationships, and social media", Management Decision. Management Decision, 50(2), 253–272. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251741211203551

Shi, X., Wang, H.-J. J., & Xing, C. (2015). The role of life insurance in an emerging economy: Human capital protection, assets allocation and social interaction. Journal of Banking and Finance, 50, 19–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbankfin.2014.08.028

Sigma. (2018). World insurance in 2017 : solid , but mature life markets weigh on growth, (3).

Solomon, M., Bamossy, G., Askegaard, S., & Hogg, M. K. (2006). CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR A European Perspective (3th editio). Prentice Hall.

Solomon, M. R., Russell-Bennett, R., & Previte, J. (2019). Consumer behaviour: buying, having, being (4th editio). Retrieved from https://www.worldcat.org/title/consumer-behaviour-buying-having-being/oclc/1086559917?referer=di&ht=edition

Stroe, M. A. (2014). Insurances and Consumer Perception in the Romanian Insurance Market. Procedia Economics and Finance, 15(14), 1717–1723. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(14)00646-7

Zakaria, Z., Azmi, N. M., Hassan, N. F. H. N., Salleh, W. A., Tajuddin, M. T. H. M., Sallem, N. R. M., & Noor, J. M. M. (2016). The Intention to Purchase Life Insurance: A Case Study of Staff in Public Universities. Procedia Economics and Finance, 37(16), 358–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(16)30137-X

Zietz, E. N. (2003). An Examination of the Demand for Life Insurance. Risk Management and Insurance Review, American Risk and Insurance Association, 6(2), 159–191. https://doi.org/J.1098-1616.2003.030.x

Zineldin, M. (2000). Beyond relationship marketing: technologicalship marketing. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 18(1), 9–23. https://doi.org/10.1108/02634500010308549