تاثیر شیوه ورود به بازار ایران بر واکنش مصرف کنندگان ایرانی نسبت به محصولات خارجی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مدیریت بازاریابی- دانشکده علوم اداری و اقتصاد- واحد علوم و تخقیقات تهران - دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

2 استادیار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران رشته تخصصی: مدیریت بازرگانی- بازاریابی

3 دانشیارگروه مدیریت بازرگانی، دانشکده مدیریت و علوم انسانی، واحد علوم و تحقیفات تهران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

4 استادیار گروه ریاضی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد قزوین، قزوین، ایران

چکیده

مالکیت بین کشوری که حاصل سرمایه گذاری های مستقیم خارجی و یا تفویض اختیار و مالکیت به شرکا محلی بوده، عامل مهمی در شکل دهی واکنش های هنجاری و احساسی در قبال محصولات خارجی است. همچنین ملی گرایی مصرف کننده و مقاومت ناشی از مسائل اقتصادی به عنوان عوامل کاهش دهنده تمایل به خرید محصولات خارجی مطرح هستند که مطالعات اندکی پیرامون روش های تعدیل پیامدهای آنها موجود است. در مطالعه حاضر اتخاذ شیوه ورود جایگزین صادرات که منجر به خلق نشانه های کشور خاستگاه ترکیبی میگردد، به عنوان روشی برای بهبود واکنش مصرف کنندگان ایرانی مطرح و برای اولین بار، نگرش و واکنش آنها در قبال محصولات با هویت ملی دوگانه (ایرانی-چینی) بررسی شد. به همین منظور تاثیر ملی گرایی و مقاومت مصرف کنندگان در قبال دو گروه از محصولات وارداتی و حاصل سرمایه گذاری مشترک، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. با استفاده از روش معادلات ساختاری، داده های جمع آوری شده از نمونه ای از مصرف کنندگان شهر اصفهان تحلیل شد. یافته ها نشان می دهد، اولاً، ملی گرایی و مقاومت اقتصادی مصرف کنندگان ایرانی دو عامل در کاهش تمایل و ارزیابی کیفیت محصولات با هویت ملی کاملا چینی هستند دوماً، ایجاد هویت ملی ترکیبی (ایران-چینی) از طریق سرمایه گذاری مستقیم خارجی چون منجر به ایجاد اشتغال و رشد اقتصادی میشود، باعث بهبود تمایل به خرید و ارزیابی کیفیت نزد مصرف کنندگان ایرانی خواهد شد. در بخش آخر ضمن بررسی نتایج پیشنهاداتی برای شرکتهای فرامرزی که قصد ورود به بازار ایران را دارند و مدیران برندهای داخلی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Influence of Iranian Market Entry on Iranian Consumer reaction to Foreign Products

نویسندگان [English]

  • behnam shahangiyan 1
  • mohamadali abdolvand 2
  • hashem nikomaram 3
  • Mohsen Khonsiavash 4
1 Department of Marketing management, Faculty of Management and Economics ,Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University
2 Department of Marketing management, Faculty of Management and Economics ,Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University
3 Department of Marketing management, Faculty of Management and Economics ,Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University
4 Department of Statistics and Mathematics, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study is to explore whether Hybrid country-of-origin (COO) that is the result of joint ownership or Foreign Direct investing, decrease the negative effect of Iranian consumer ethnocentrism and economic animosity toward China. The Important concepts that influence on forming effective and normative reflect of consumers toward foreign products and little attention has been paid to investing ways to reduce the negative effect of them. The study was conducted with the SEM method on the data collected from a national sample of Isfahan consumers using a structured questionnaire. The findings suggest that 1-Ethnocentrism and Economic Animosity of Iranian consumers harm the quality evaluation and willingness to purchase of china products. 2- making a hybrid Coo by foreign direct investing improve attitude toward foreign products.
The results of this study are of value for foreign firms that when developing marketing strategies for the Iranian market as well as the domestic brand when competitive or cooperation with the foreign company. This study adds to the existing body of knowledge on ethnocentrism and animosity in Iran market, and more specifically, about different of the consequence of these concept based on different COO-cues.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Country of origin
  • foreign market entring mode
  • hybrid product
  • consumer ethnocentrism
  • consumer animosity
حسن­زاده، محمود؛ خدادادحسینی، سیدحمید و احمدی، پرویز  (۱۳۹۸). عدم انطباق بین نگرش و رفتار خرید محصولات داخلی (مورد مطالعه: بازار خودرو)، مطالعات رفتار مصرف­کننده، ۶ (۲)، ۹۰-۱۱۱.

بخشی­زاده‌برج، کبری؛ داورزنی، ناصر (۱۳۹۸). نگاشت نقشه ذهنی مصرف‌کنندگان نسبت به کالای ایرانی، مطالعات رفتار مصرف­کننده، ۶ (۱)، ۱۷۱-۱۹۱.

Ahmed, S. A., & d'Astous, A. (2008). Antecedents, moderators and dimensions of country-of-origin evaluations. International Marketing Review, 25(1), 75-106.

Amine, L. S. (2008). Country-of-origin, animosity and consumer response: Marketing implications of anti-Americanism and Francophobia. International Business Review, 17(4), 402-422.

Amine, L. S., Chao, M. C., & Arnold, M. J. (2005). Executive insights: Exploring the practical effects of country of origin, animosity, and price–quality issues: Two case studies of Taiwan and Acer in China. Journal of International Marketing, 13(2), 114-150.

Ang, S. H., Jung, K., Kau, A. K., Leong, S. M., Pornpitakpan, C., & Tan, S. J. (2004). Animosity towards economic giants: what the little guys think. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 13(2), 190-270.

Antonetti, P., Manika, D., & Katsikeas, C. (2019). Why consumer animosity reduces product quality perceptions: The role of extreme emotions in international crises. International Business Review.

Bahaee, M., & Pisani, M. J. (2009). Iranian consumer animosity and U.S. products: A witch's brew or elixir? International Business Review, 18(2), 199-210. doi:10.1016/j.ibusrev.2009.02.002

Bakhshizadeh Borj, K., & Davarzani, N. (2019). Mapping Consumers' Mental Model of Iranian products. Consumer Behavior Studies Journal, 6(1), 171-191.(In Persian)

Balabanis, G., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2004). Domestic country bias, country-of-origin effects, and consumer ethnocentrism: a multidimensional unfolding approach. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 32(1), 80-95.

Balabanis, G., Diamantopoulos, A., Mueller, R. D., & Melewar, T. (2001). The impact of nationalism, patriotism and internationalism on consumer ethnocentric tendencies. Journal of international business studies, 32(1), 157-175.

Bradley, F., & Gannon, M. (2000). Does the firm's technology and marketing profile affect foreign market entry? Journal of International Marketing, 8(4), 12-36.

Byrne, B. M. (2000). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concept, application, and programming multivariate applications. London: Lawrence Erlbaum associates.

Campo, S., & Alvarez, M. D. (2019). Animosity Toward a Country In The Context of Destinations as Tourism Products. Journal of Hospitality Tourism Research, 43(7), 1002-1024.

Chan, T. S., Chan, K. K., & Leung, L.-c. (2010). How consumer ethnocentrism and animosity impair the economic recovery of emerging markets. Journal of Global Marketing, 23(3), 203-225.

Chao, P. (2001). The moderating effects of country of assembly, country of parts, and country of design on hybrid product evaluations. Journal of advertising, 30(4), 67-81.

Chattalas, M., Kramer, T., & Takada, H. (2008). The impact of national stereotypes on the country of origin effect: A conceptual framework. International Marketing Review,25(1), 54-74.

Cheah, I., Phau, I., Kea, G., & Huang, Y. A. (2016). Modelling effects of consumer animosity: Consumers' willingness to buy foreign and hybrid products. Journal of Retailing Consumer Services, 30(1), 184-192.

Cheah, I. & Phau, I. (2015). Effects of “owned by” versus “made in” for willingness to buy Australian brands. Marketing Intelligence Planning, 33(3), 444-468.

Cilingir, Z., & Basfirinci, C. (2014). The impact of consumer ethnocentrism, product involvement, and product knowledge on country of origin effects: An empirical analysis on Turkish consumers’ product evaluation. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 26(4), 284-310.

Fong, C.-M., Lee, C.-L., & Du, Y. (2014). Consumer animosity, country of origin, and foreign entry-mode choice: a cross-country investigation. Journal of International Marketing, 22(1), 62-76.

Fong, C.-M., Lee, C.-L., & Du, Y. (2015). Consumer animosity and foreign direct investment: An investigation of consumer responses. International Business Review, 24(1), 23-32.

Funk, C. A., Arthurs, J. D., Treviño, L. J., & Joireman, J. (2010). Consumer animosity in the global value chain: The effect of international production shifts on willingness to purchase hybrid products. Journal of international business studies, 41(4), 639-651.

Ganguli, S., & Roy, S. K. (2010). Service quality dimensions of hybrid services. Managing service quality: An international journal, 20(5), 404-424.

Guo, G., Zhou, X., & Tu, H. (2016). Consumer animosity, self-efficacy and willingness-to-visit: an empirical study on young outbound tourism market. Tourism Tribune, 31(2), 44-52.

Gürhan-Canli, Z., & Maheswaran, D. (2000). Cultural variations in country of origin effects. Journal of marketing research, 37(3), 309-317.

Hassanzadeh, M., Khodadad Hosseini, H., & Ahmadi, P. (2020). Inconsistency between Attitude and Purchase Behavior toward Domestic Products (Case Study: Automobile Market). Consumer Behavior Studies Journal, 6(2), 90-111. (In Persian)

Hoon Ang, S., Jung, K., Keng Kau, A., Meng Leong, S., Pornpitakpan, C., & Jiuan Tan, S. (2004). Animosity towards economic giants: what the little guys think. Journal of Consumer Marketing,   21(3), 190-270.

Jiménez, N. H., & San Martín, S. (2010). The role of country-of-origin, ethnocentrism and animosity in promoting consumer trust. The moderating role of familiarity. International Business Review, 19(1), 34-45.

Jung, K., Ang, S. H., Leong, S. M., Tan, S. J., Pornpitakpan, C., & Kau, A. K. (2002). A typology of animosity and its cross-national validation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(6), 25-38 .

Klein, J. G. (2002). Us versus them, or us versus everyone? Delineating consumer aversion to foreign goods. Journal of international business studies, 32(2), 345-363.

Klein, J. G., & Ettensoe, R. (1999). Consumer animosity and consumer ethnocentrism: An analysis of unique antecedents. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 11(4), 5-24.

Klein, J. G., Ettenson, R., & Morris, M. D. (1998). The animosity model of foreign product purchase: An empirical test in the People's Republic of China. Journal of marketing 62(1), 89-100.

Lee, R., & Tae Lee, K. (2013). The longitudinal effects of a two-dimensional consumer animosity. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 30(3), 273-282.

Meshreki, H., Ennew, C., & Mourad, M. M. (2018). A comparative analysis of dimensions of COO and animosity on industrial buyers’ attitudes and intentions. Journal of Product Brand Management, 27(7), 832-846.

Nijssen, E. J., & Douglas, S. P. (2004). Examining the animosity model in a country with a high level of foreign trade. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21(1), 23-38.

Pan, Y., & David, K. T. (2000). The hierarchical model of market entry modes. Journal of international business studies, 31(4), 535-554.

Pentz, C., Terblanche, N., & Boshoff, C. (2017). Antecedents and consequences of consumer ethnocentrism: Evidence from South Africa. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 12(2), 199-218.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P (2003) Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 88(5), 879-888.

Riefler, P., & Diamantopoulos, A. (2007). Consumer animosity: a literature review and a reconsideration of its measurement. nternational Marketing Review, 24(1), 87-119.

Sánchez, M., Campo, S., & Alvarez, M. D. (2018). The effect of animosity on the intention to visit tourist destinations. Journal of destination marketing management, 7(2), 182-189.  

Seidenfuss, K.-U., Kathawala, Y., & Dinnie, K. (2013). Regional and country ethnocentrism: broadening ASEAN origin perspectives. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing, 25(2), 298-320.

Stepchenkova, S., Shichkova, E., Kim, M., & Rykhtik, M. I. (2017). Do strained bilateral relations affect tourists’ desire to visit a country that is a target of animosity? Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 35(5), 553-566. doi:10.1080/10548408.2017.1374907

Shimp, T. A., & Sharma, S. (1987). Consumer ethnocentrism: construction and validation of the CETSCALE. Journal of marketing research, 24(3), 280-289.

Shin, M. (2001). The animosity model of foreign product purchase revisited: does it work in Korea? Journal of Empirical Generalisations in Marketing Science, 6(1), 314-320.

Shoham, A., Davidow, M., Klein, J. G., & Ruvio, A. (2006). Animosity on the home front: The Intifada in Israel and its impact on consumer behavior. Journal of International Marketing, 14(3), 92-114.

Shoham, A., Gavish, Y., & Rose, G. M. (2016). Consequences of consumer animosity: A meta-analytic integration. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 28(3), 185-200.

Tjandra, N. C., Omar, M., & Ensor, J. (2015). Advanced and emerging economies Generation Y’s perception towards country-of-origin. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 4(10), 858-874.

Vadhanavisala, O. (2015). Ethnocentrism and its influence on intention to purchase domestic products: a study on Thai consumers in the central business district of Bangkok. AU Journal of Management, 12(2), 319-346.

Verlegh, P. W., Steenkamp, J., & Benedict , E. (1999). A review and meta-analysis of country-of-origin research. Journal of economic psychology, 20(5), 521-546.

Vida, I., & Reardon, J. (2008). Domestic consumption: rational, affective or normative choice? Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 34-44.

White III, G. O., Hemphill, T. A., Joplin, J. R., & Marsh, L. A. (2014). Wholly owned foreign subsidiary relation-based strategies in volatile environments. International Business Review, 23(1), 303-312.

Witkowski, T. (2000). Effects of animosity toward China on willingness to buy Chinese products. Managing in a turbulent international business environment, 18(1), 210-232.