ارائة چارچوب ادراک قیمتی در مصرف‌کنندگان مختلف اقوام ایرانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مدیریت بازرکانی/ دانشکده مدیریت/ دانشگاه تهران/ تهران/ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت بازرگانی دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

مشتریان بر مبنای ادراک خود از قیمت، ویژگی‌های محصول و سایر عناصر آمیخته بازاریابی تصمیم می‌گیرند. بنابراین آنچه برای تصمیم‌گیران بازاریابی در سازمان‌ها اهمیت دارد، ادراک مشتریان از عناصر آمیخته بازاریابی از جمله قیمت‌های پیشنهادی است و نه واقعیت آن‌ها. پژوهش حاضر در صدد تبیین فرایند ادراک قیمت و بررسی متغیرهای اثرگذار بر ادراک قیمت در میان اقوام ایرانی و مقایسه‌ی آن با پیشینه تحقیق می-باشد. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف در گروه تحقیقات توسعه‌ای قرار می‌گیرد. از نظر ماهیت داده‌ها و سبک تحلیل در گروه تحقیقات کیفی و با مصاحبه‌های عمیق با مشارکت‌کنندگان داده‌ها جمع‌آوری می‌شود. از منظر روش انجام پژوهش، تحلیلی – توصیفی است و داده‌های پژوهش با روش تحلیل محتوی، تحلیل می‌شوند. محیط پژوهش 3 قوم کرد، فارس و ترک می‌باشد. نتایج بدست آمده حاکی از آن است که ادراک قیمتی مصرف‌کنندگان این اقوام متفاوت است و عامل این تفاوت تاثیر فرهنگ بر ادراک قیمتی آنها می‌باشد. از این پژوهش 80 کد، 14 مفهوم و 6 مقوله استخراج شده است. از 80 کد استخراج شده از مصاحبه‌ها قوم کرد در ایجاد 53 کد، قوم فارس در ایجاد 64 کد و قوم ترک در ایجاد 67 کد مشارکت داشته‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Presenting a Price Perception Framework for Different Consumers of Iranian Ethnicity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hero Isavi 1
  • Mohsen Nazari 2
1 Business Management Dept, Management Faculty, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor,, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Customers make decisions based on their perception of price, product features and other marketing mix elements. So what matters to marketing decision makers in organizations is how customers perceive the mix of marketing elements, not their reality. The present study tries to explain the process of price perception and to investigate the variables affecting price perception among Iranian ethnic groups based on Liechtenstein model. The purpose of this study is to develop concepts. It’s a qualitative research and based on the method of data collection from the participants. From the perspective of the research method, it is analytical-descriptive and the research data are analyzed by content analysis method. The research studies three ethnics, Kurdish people, Persian and Turkish consumers. The results show that consumers' price perceptions of the three ethnicities are different and this difference is due to the influence of culture on their price perception. 80 codes, 14 concepts and 6 themes are the results of this research. Kurdish consumers participate in producing 53 codes and Persian participate in producing 64 codes and Turkish consumers participate in producing 67 codes of these results.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Price perception
  • Iranian Ethnicity
  • quality-price scheme
  • value consciousness
  • Culture
آشتیانی، پیمان (1393). بررسی تأثیر ابعاد ادراک قیمت بر خبرگی قیمت و میزان لذت­بخشی خرید، مدیریت بازاریابی، 28، 71-49.
جبارزاده، بهرام، ملاحسینی، علی (1390). بررسی تأثیر ریسک، ارزش و آگاهی قیمت بر تمایل به خرید کالاهای بازار خاکستری در استان کرمان، تحقیقات بازاریابی نوین، 1، 22-1.
عادل‌مهربان، مرضیه (1394). مروری بر تحلیل محتوای کیفی و کاربرد آن در پژوهش. مانی، 88.
کردنائیح، اسدالله؛ سلطانی، مرتضی و ایوبی‌یزدی، حمید (1398). نقش عوامل ساختاری کمپین­های بازاریابی علت‌محور در پاسخ مصرف­کنندگان. مطالعات مصرف‌کننده، 6 (2)، 149-173.
نظری، محسن و فتحی، هانیه (1398). بررسی اثر تفاوت قیمت، هنجار اجتماعی سلسله‌مراتبی و بومی بر ادراک قیمت­گذاری منصفانه. مجله مطالعات رفتار مصرف­کننده. 6 (1)، 19-1.
نظری، محسن. دستیار، حسین (1397). عوامل تعیین‌کننده تصویر قیمتی فروشگاهی، رهیافت فراترکیب، فصلنامه علمی-پژوهشی تحقیقات بازاریابی نوین. 8 (1)، 1-20.
نظری، محسن؛ حیدر، علی؛ حقیقی‌نسب، منیژه و سمیع‌زاده، مهدی (1397). فراتحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر انصاف ادراک‌شده در استراتژی قیمت‌گذاری پویا، فصلنامه مدیریت بازرگانی، 10(1)، 252- 229.
نظری، محسن؛ شاه­حسینی، محمدعلی و طباطبایی، وحید (1393). تأثیر عوامل ادراک قیمتی بر مشتری و پذیرش قیمت (مطالعه موردی: خدمات تلفن همراه شرکت ام. تی. ان. ایرانسل). مدیریت بازرگانی، 6(2)، 664-647.
 
 
Reference
Ackerman, D., & Tellis, G. (2001). Can culture affect prices? A cross-cultural study of shopping and retail prices. Journal of retailing77(1), 57-82.‏
Adaval, R., & Wyer Jr, R. S. (2011). Conscious and nonconscious comparisons with price anchors: Effects on willingness to pay for related and unrelated products. Journal of Marketing Research48(2), 355-365.‏
Adel Mehraban, M. (2015). A Review of Qualitative content Analysis and Its application in research. (in Persian)
Alford, B. L., & Biswas, A. (2002). The effects of discount level, price consciousness and sale proneness on consumers' price perception and behavioral intention. Journal of Business research55(9), 775-783.‏
Ashtiyani, P. (2014). Investigating the effect of price perception dimensions on price expertise and purchase satisfaction. Journal of Marketing Management, 28, 49-71. (in Persian)
Bolton, L. E., Warlop, L., & Alba, J. W. (2003). Consumer perceptions of price (un) fairness. Journal of consumer research29(4), 474-491.‏
Boyle, P. J., & Lathrop, E. S. (2009). Are consumers' perceptions of price–quality relationships well calibrated?. International Journal of Consumer Studies33(1), 58-63.‏
Boza, M. E., & Diamond, W. (1998). The social context of exchange: Transaction utility, relationships and legitimacy. ACR North American Advances.‏
Burman, B., & Biswas, A. (2007). Partitioned pricing: can we always divide and prosper?. Journal of retailing83(4), 423-436.‏
Chandran, S., & Morwitz, V. G. (2005). Effects of participative pricing on consumers' cognitions and actions: A goal theoretic perspective. Journal of Consumer Research32(2), 249-259.‏
Chandrashekaran, R. (2011). Focal and contextual components of price history as determinants of expected price. Journal of product & brand management.‏
Dickson, P. R., & Sawyer, A. G. (1990). The price knowledge and search of supermarket shoppers. Journal of marketing54(3), 42-53.‏
Ene, S., & Özkaya, B. (2013). A Study Regarding the Attitudes that are Effective on the Price Perception of Consumers that Shop from the Retail Stores. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences4(11), 451.‏
Erdem, T., Katz, M. L., & Sun, B. (2010). A simple test for distinguishing between internal reference price theories. Quantitative Marketing and Economics8(3), 303-332.‏
Gendall, P., Holdershaw, J., & Garland, R. (1997). The effect of odd pricing on demand. European Journal of Marketing.‏, 31, 736-913.
Gilbride, T. J., Guiltinan, J. P., & Urbany, J. E. (2008). Framing effects in mixed price bundling. Marketing Letters19(2), 125-139.‏
Goldstein, S., & Naglieri, J. A. (2014). Handbook of executive functioning. Springer.‏
Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today24(2), 105-112.‏
Gunnarsson, K. (2015). Doctoral thesis. stockholm.
Gupta, S., & Kim, H. W. (2010). Value‐driven Internet shopping: The mental accounting theory perspective. Psychology & Marketing27(1), 13-35.‏
Hardie, B. G., Johnson, E. J., & Fader, P. S. (1993). Modeling loss aversion and reference dependence effects on brand choice. Marketing science12(4), 378-394.‏
Harris, C., & Bray, J. (2007). Price endings and consumer segmentation. Journal of Product & Brand Management.‏, 16, 200-205.
Helson, H. (1964). Adaptation-level theory: an experimental and systematic approach to behavior.‏. Harper and Row: New York.
Holton, L., & Bates, J. (2009). Business Valuation for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons.‏
Huang, W. (2011). Price-taking behavior versus continuous dynamic optimizing. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization78(1-2), 37-50.‏
Jabbarzade, B., & Mollahosseini, A. (2011). Investigating the effect of risk, value and price awareness on the tendency to buy gray market goods in Kerman province. Journal of Modern Marketing Research, 1, 1-22. (in Persian)
Janiszewski, C., & Lichtenstein, D. R. (1999). A range theory account of price perception. Journal of Consumer Research25(4), 353-368.‏
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A., (1979). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica, 47,263- 291
Kalyanaram, G., & Winer, R. S. (1995). Empirical generalizations from reference price research. Marketing science14(3_supplement), G161-G169.‏
Kapferer, J. N., & Bastien, V. (2012). The luxury strategy: Break the rules of marketing to build luxury brands. Kogan page publishers.‏
Kerin, R. A., Jain, A., & Howard, D. J. (1992). Store shopping experience and consumer price-quality-value perceptions. Journal of retailing68(4), 376.‏
Klein, N. H., & Oglethorpe, J. E. (1987). Cognitive reference points in consumer decision making. ACR North American Advances.‏
Kopalle, P. K., Rao, A. G., & Assuncao, J. L. (1996). Asymmetric reference price effects and dynamic pricing policies. Marketing Science15(1), 60-85.‏
Kornaeij, A., Soltani, M. & Ayoubi Yazdi, H. (2019). The Roll of Structural Factors of Cause Related Marketing Campaigns in Consumer Response. Consumer Behavior Studies Journal. 6(2), 149-173. (in Persian)
Kotler, Ph., Keller, K. (2005). Marketing Management. Hardcover, 12th Edition.
Kumar, V. K. K. W. J., Hurley, M., Karande, K., & Reinartz, W. J. (1998). The impact of internal and external reference prices on brand choice: the moderating role of contextual variables. Journal of Retailing74(3), 401-426.‏
Lichtenstein, D. R., Ridgway, N. M., & Netemeyer, R. G. (1993). Price perceptions and consumer shopping behavior: a field study. Journal of marketing research30(2), 234-245.‏
Lichtenstein, D. R., Ridgway, N. M., & Netemeyer, R. G. (1993). Price perceptions and consumer shopping behavior: a field study. Journal of marketing research30(2), 234-245.‏
Lin, Y. F., Liang, T. P., Teh, P. L., & Lai, C. Y. (2015). Can Time Pressure and Discount Strategy of Mobile Coupons Affect Consumers' Purchase Intention. In PACIS (p. 62).‏
Luo, X., & Lee, J. J. (2018). The Effect of Post-Purchase Discount Format on Consumers' Perception of Loss and Willingness to Return. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business5(4), 101-105.‏
Maxwell, S. (2001). An expanded price/brand effect model‐A demonstration of heterogeneity in global consumption. International Marketing Review, 325-343
Mendoza, J. (2016). Towards the formation and measurement of ethnic price perception.‏
Meng, F. (2010). Individualism/collectivism and group travel behavior: a cross‐cultural perspective. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research.‏
Meng, J., Elliott, K. M., & Hall, M. C. (2009). Technology readiness index (TRI): Assessing cross-cultural validity. Journal of International Consumer Marketing22(1), 19-31.‏
Monroe, K. (1997). B.,(2003), Pricing: Making Profitable Decisions.‏
Monroe, K. B. (1973). Buyers’ subjective perceptions of price. Journal of marketing research10(1), 70-80.‏
Moon, S., & Voss, G. (2009). How do price range shoppers differ from reference price point shoppers?. Journal of Business Research62(1), 31-38.‏
Moore, M., Kennedy, K. M., & Fairhurst, A. (2003). Cross‐cultural equivalence of price perceptions between US and Polish consumers. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 31, 268-279.
Muskat, B., Hörtnagl, T., Prayag, G., & Wagner, S. (2019). Perceived quality, authenticity, and price in tourists’ dining experiences: Testing competing models of satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Journal of Vacation Marketing25(4), 480-498.‏
Nazari, M., & Adib Haji Bagheri, S. (2013). Investigating the Effect of Fair Price on Customer Satisfaction in the Car Purchase Process (Case Study: Pride & Peugeot 206), Journal of Commercial of Tehran University, 121-140. (in Persian)
Nazari, M., & Dastar, H. (2018). Factors Determining the Price Image of Stores, The Transcendental Approach. Journal of Marketing Research, 1,1-20. (in Persian)
Nazari, M., & Fathi, H. (2019). Investigating the effect of price difference, hierarchical and indigenous social norm on pricing perception Fair; Analysis of the role of the source of financing. Consumers Studies Behavior Journal. 1, 1-19. (in Persian)
Nazari, M., Ahmadi, S., & Afifi, M. (2018).The effect of product price segmentation compared to its overall price range on buyer behavior. Consumer Behavior Studies Journal.vol 5 (2), 21-37. (in Persian)
Nazari, M., Shahhosseini, M., & Tabatabaiee, V. (2014). Influence of Price Perception Factors on Customer and Price Acceptance. Business management, 6, 647 -664. (in Persian)
Niedrich, R. W., Sharma, S., & Wedell, D. H. (2001). Reference price and price perceptions: A comparison of alternative models. Journal of Consumer Research28(3), 339-354.‏
Niedrich, R. W., Weathers, D., Hill, R. C., & Bell, D. R. (2009). Specifying price judgments with range–frequency theory in models of brand choice. Journal of marketing research46(5), 693-702.‏
O'cass, A., & McEwen, H. (2004). Exploring consumer status and conspicuous consumption. Journal of consumer behaviour: an international research review4(1), 25-39.‏
Palazón, M., & Delgado, E. (2009). The moderating role of price consciousness on the effectiveness of price discounts and premium promotions. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 18, 306-312.
Parducci, A. (1965). Category judgment: a range-frequency model. Psychological review72(6), 407.‏
Rousta, A., Venus, D., & Ebrahimi, A. (1391). Marketing Management. Entesharate Semat, 16th edition
Schwartz, B. L., & Krantz, J. H. (2017). Sensation and perception. Sage Publications.‏
Sinha, S., Prasad, K. N., Pradhan, S., Jain, D., & Jha, S. (2004). Detection of preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection by polymerase chain reaction in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene98(6), 342-346.‏
Stein, U., & Alpert, P. I. N. H. A. S. (1993). Factor separation in numerical simulations. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences50(14), 2107-2115.‏
Suarez Alvarez, L., Díaz Martín, A. M., & Casielles, R. V. (2007). Relationship marketing and information and communication technologies: Analysis of retail travel agencies. Journal of travel Research45(4), 453-463.‏
Suri, R., Long, M., & Monroe, K. B. (2008). The impact of the Internet and consumer motivation on evaluation of prices. Journal of business Research56(5), 379-390.‏
Taher, A., & El Basha, H. (2006). Heterogeneity of consumer demand: opportunities for pricing of services. Journal of Product & Brand Management.‏
Tellis, G.J., & Gaeth, G. J. (1990). Best Value, Price-Seeking, and Price Aversion: The Impact of Information and Learning on Consumer Choices. Journal of Marketing, 54, 34-45.
Thaler, R. (1985). Mental accounting and consumer choice. Marketing science4(3), 199-214.‏
Thaler, R. H. (2008). Mental accounting and consumer choice. Marketing Science27(1), 15-25.‏
Thomas, M., & Morwitz, V. (2004). Effects of framing on magnitude perceptions of price. Advances in Consumer Research31(1), 454-6.‏
Varki, S., & Colgate, M. (2001). The role of price perceptions in an integrated model of behavioral intentions. Journal of Service Research3(3), 232-240.‏
Volkmann, J. (1951). Scales of judgment and their implications for social psychology.‏
Xia, L., & Monroe, K. (2004). Price Partitioning on the Internet. Journal of Interactive Marketing Banner.
Zaltman, G. (2005). How consumers think: Essential insights into the mind of the market.
Zhou, Z., & Nakamoto, K. (2001). Price perceptions: a cross-national study between American and Chinese young consumers. ACR North American Advances, 28, 161-168.
Zielke, S. (2011). Integrating emotions in the analysis of retail price images. Psychology & Marketing28(4), 330-359.‏