مصرف گرایی در معماری با تاکید بر مبانی نشانه شناسی معماری عامه پسند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

2 استاد تمام، گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی، تهران،ایران

3 استادیار، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران.

4 استادیار، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، واحد قزوین، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قزوین، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش بررسی مصرف گرایی در معماری با تاکید بر مبانی نشانه شناسی معماری عامه پسند می‌باشد. معماری عامه‌پسند نوعی از معماری می‌باشد که بسیار مورد پذیرش مردم و مورد انتقاد معماران است که در دهه‌ی اخیر به شدت رواج پیدا کرده‌است. پرسش‌های این پژوهش به دنبال بررسی دلایل گرایش مردم به نماهای معماری عامه پسند و بررسی دلایل رواج مصرف‌گرایی در معماری می‌باشد. روش پژوهش توصیفی و تحلیلی، نشانه‌شناسی، پیمایش و دلفی می‌باشد. نمونه‌های آماری این پژوهش از شهر قزوین انتخاب شده‌اند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد در نماهای معماری عامه‌پسند شاهد پدیده فرهنگ‌پذیری هستیم، یعنی استفاده از نشانه‌هایی که خارج از مدار زمانی و مکانی نظام فرهنگیشان قرار دارند. در نماهای معماری عامه‌پسند نشانه‌هایی از معماری کلاسیک بازنمایی شده‌اند. این بازنمایی‌ها وانموده یا نسخه‌هایی بدون اصل هستند که در آن نشانه‌ها از معنا خالی می‌شوند. این نماها نشانه تمایز و تشخیص فرد از دیگر گروه‌های اجتماعی می‌شود. طبقه مرفه برای متمایز کردن خود از دیگران و طبیعی جلوه دادن منزلت بالا از نشانه‌های بازنمایی شده از معماری کلاسیک استفاده می‌کند تا پسند خود را منطبق با نوعی معماری با اعتبار معرفی کنند. طبقات پایین‌تر برای کاهش فاصله با طبقات بالا سعی در تقلید این نوع معماری دارند. لذا این نوع معماری در جامعه رواج می‌یابد و تبدیل به کالایی مصرفی می‌گردد. مهمترین عواملی که سبب گرایش مردم به نماهای معماری عامه پسند می‌شوند شامل خوانش تاریخ به صورت گزینشی، دارای موتیف‌های آشنا، پرزرق و برق ، باشکوه و مجلل و یادآور و اشاره‌گر بودن است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Consumerism in Architecture with Emphasis on Popular Architecture Semiotics

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mandana Yousefi 1
  • Simon Ayvazian 2
  • Iman Raeisi 3
  • Jamaledin Soheili 3
  • Kamal Rahbarimanesh 4
1 Department of architecture, faculty of art and architecture, Islamic Azad university of Qazvin, Qazvin,Iran
2 Department of architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tehran university, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of architecture, faculty of architecture and urbanism, Islamic Azad university of Qazvin. Qazvin,iran
4 Department of architecture, faculty of architecture and urbanism, Islamic Azad university of Qazvin. Qazvin,iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study is to investigate consumerism in architecture with emphasis on popular architecture semiotics.Popular architecture is a kind of architecture that is highly accepted by people and criticized by architects which has been prevalent in recent decades. The questions of this research seek to investigate the reasons for tendencies towards popular architecture and consider the reasons why consumerism is prevalent in architecture. The research method is descriptive and analytical, semiotics, scrolling and Delphi. Statistical samples of this research were selected from Qazvin city. The results show that in the popular architecture facades we are witnessing the phenomenon of acculturation, namely the use of signs outside the temporal and spatial orbit of their cultural system. Symbols of classical architecture are represented in the facades of popular architecture. These representations are pretentious or non-original versions in which the signs are devoid of meaning.
These facades represent the differentiation and recognition of the individual from other social groups. The affluent class uses classical architectural signs to distinguish itself from the others and to display its high status by introducing itself as a prestigious architecture. The lower classes try to imitate this kind of architecture to solidify and reduce the gap with the upper classes. Therefore, this type of architecture is widespread throughout the community and becomes a consumer commodity.And finally the most important factors that drive people to popular architecture are the selective reading of history, having familiar motifs, splendor, magnificence, and being Reminders and pointers, and luxurious.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Architecture
  • popular
  • postmodernism
  • semiotics
  • Consumer society

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