طراحی چارچوب مدیریت تجربه مشتری در تجارت اجتماعی: رویکردی آمیخته

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مدیریت ، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه حضرت معصومه (س)، قم، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت بازاریابی، دانشگاه حضرت معصومه (س)، قم، ایران

چکیده

امروزه مدیریت تجربه مشتری به عنوان استراتژی رقابتی غالب در حوزه کسب وکار های مبتنی بر اینترنت و پلتفرم های رسانه های اجتماعی می باشد. تجارت اجتماعی، به عنوان یکی از اشکال نوین تجارت الکترونیکی، شکل غالب تجارت آینده خواهد بود و پرداختن به تجربه مشتری در آن مورد تاکید قرار گرفته است. علیرغم اهمیت تجربه مشتری در تجارت اجتماعی تحقیقات معدودی در این حوزه صورت گرفته و درک روشنی از چگونگی مدیریت تجارب مشتریان اجتماعی وجود ندارد. به همین منظور، هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر ارائه‌ی چارچوب مدیریت تجربه مشتری در تجارت اجتماعی می‌باشد. رویکرد پژوهشی در این تحقیق، روش آمیخته است. روش پژوهش در بخش کیفی، راهبرد گروه کانونی و در بخش کمی، توصیفی- پیمایشی می باشد. در مرحله اول پژوهش، به منظور استخراج مولفه های چارچوب پیشنهادی علاوه بر مرور ادبیات حوزه پژوهش از روش گروه کانونی، متشکل از 7 نفر از خبرگان، بهره گرفته شده است. در مرحله دوم، به منظور نظرسنجی از خبرگان و نیز وزن دهی مولفه‌های چارچوب از رویکرد پیمایش و ابزار پرسشنامه بهره گرفته شد. در این مرحله37 نفر از خبرگان در پژوهش مشارکت داشتند و داده های حاصل با استفاده از آزمون علامت و میانگین موزون مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج پژوهش در مرحله اول حاکی از آن است که چارچوب مدیریت تجربه مشتری دربر گیرنده 7 بعد و 46 شاخص می باشد که تمامی ابعاد و شاخص ها در مرحله دوم پژوهش از دیدگاه خبرگان مورد تایید بوده است. در مرحله دوم ابعادچارچوب مشتری، به ترتیب اهمیت از دیگاه خبرگان، شامل افراد، ارزیابی عملکرد، محتوای کیفیت تجربه، تکنولوژی و ابزارها، فرایند، استراتژی، حکمرانی می باشد. پژوهش حاضر در زمره نخستین تحقیقاتی است که در حوزه مدیریت تجربه مشتری اجتماعی صورت پذیرفته است و به مدیران در ایجاد سازگاری در تعاملات مشتریان حین مبادلات تجارت اجتماعی یاری می رساند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing a Customer Experience Management Framework in a Social Business: A Mixed Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mona Jami Pour 1
  • Mohammad Talari 1
  • Mahnaz Bahadori 2
1 Assistant Professor of Information Technology Management, Hazrat-e Ma’soumeh University (HMU), Qom, Iran
2 MA of Marketing, Faculty of Management, Hazrate Masoumeh University, Qom, Iran
چکیده [English]

Today, customer experience management (CEM) is the dominant competitive strategy in the field of businesses based Internet and social media platforms. Social commerce, as one of the new forms of e-commerce, will be the dominant form of future business, and the focus on customer experience has been emphasized in this area. In spite of the importance of customer experience in social commerce, there is little research in this area and there is no clear understanding of how to manage the experiences of social customers. For this purpose, the main objective of the current study is to design a framework for CEM in social commerce. The research approach in this research is a mixed approach. The research method is qualitative, focal group strategy and in the quantitative, descriptive-survey method. In the first step of research, in order to extract the proposed components of the framework, in addition to reviewing the literature, the focus group method, consisting of seven experts, has been used. In the second step, a survey method and a questionnaire were used to review the experts’ opinions and weight of the framework components. At this stage, 37 experts participated in the research, and the data were analyzed using the mark and mean test. The research results indicate that the customer experience management framework includes the dimensions of individuals, performance evaluation, content quality of experience, technology and tools, process, strategy, and governance. The research helps managers to create adaptability in customer interactions during social trade exchanges.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • social media
  • social commerce
  • customer experience
  • customer experience management (CEM)
Ananda, A. S., Hernández-García, Á., & Lamberti, L. (2016). N-REL: A comprehensive framework of social media marketing strategic actions for marketing organizations. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 1(3), 170-180. Baker, T. E., Chaffee, S. L., Chen, Y., Gruber, C. J., & Fishman, H. P. (2003). U.S. Patent No. 6, 611, 498. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Berry, L. L., & Carbone, L. P. (2007). Build loyalty through experience management. Quality progress, 40(9), 26.
Beyari, H., & Ghouth, A. (2018). Customer Experience in Social Commerce Websites: Toward an Integrated Conceptual Framework, Journal of Management Research, 10(3), 52-62. Bilgihan, A., Kandampully, J., & Zhang, T. (2016). Towards a unified customer experience in online shopping environments: Antecedents and outcomes. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 8(1), 102-119. Bo, S. H. E. N., & Xu, H. A. N. (2016). Factors Affecting Customer Experience in Mobile Social Commerce: A Conceptual Model. DEStech Transactions on Social Science, Education and Human Science, (icss).
Bolton, R. N., Gustafsson, A., McColl-Kennedy, J., J. Sirianni, N., & K. Tse, D. (2014). Small details that make big differences: a radical approach to consumption experience as a firm's differentiating strategy. Journal of Service Management, 25(2), 253-274.

Bolton, R. N., McColl-Kennedy, J. R., Cheung, L., Gallan, A., Orsingher, C., Witell, L., & Zaki, M. (2018). Customer experience challenges: bringing together digital, physical and social realms. Journal of Service Management, 29(5), 776-808. Botha, G. J., & Van Rensburg, A. C. (2010). Proposed business process improvement model with integrated customer experience management. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, 21(1), 45-58. Brown, T. J., Barry, T. E., Dacin, P. A., & Gunst, R. F. (2005). Spreading the word: Investigating antecedents of consumers’ positive word-of-mouth intentions and behaviors in a retailing context. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 33(2), 123-138.
Brynjolfsson, E., Hu, Y. J., & Rahman, M. S. (2013). Competing in the age of omnichannel retailing. MIT.
Bügel, M. S. (2010). The application of psychological theories for an improved understanding of customer relationships. University of Groningen.
Buttle, F., & Maklan, S. (2015). Customer Relationship Management: concept and technologies. London: Routledge.
Chang, T. Y., & Horng, S. C. (2010). Conceptualizing and measuring experience quality: the customer's perspective. The Service industries journal, 30(14), 2401-2419.
Chen, S. C., & Lin, C. P. (2015). The impact of customer experience and perceived value on sustainable social relationship in blogs: An empirical study. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 96, 40-50.
Dijulius, J. (2008). What’s the secret?; To providing a world class customer experience. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Dzahaban, D., & Shihab, M. R. (2016). Customer social experience as antecedents of social commerce: Insights from Kaskus. In 2016 International Conference on Advanced Computer Science and Information Systems (ICACSIS) (251-256). IEEE. Edelman, B., Luca, M., & Svirsky, D. (2017). Racial discrimination in the sharing economy: Evidence from a field experiment. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 9(2), 1-22.
Edelman, D. C., & Singer, M. (2015). Competing on customer journeys. Harvard Business Review, 93(11), 88-100.
Erdoğmuş, İ. E. & Tatar, Ş. B. (2015). Drivers of Social Commerce through Brand Engagement. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 207, 189-195. Floreddu, P. B., & Cabiddu, F. (2016). Social media communication strategies. Journal of Services Marketing, 30(5), 490-503.
Forbs. (2019). Why Social Media Performance Lags Even As Spending Soars, Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/christinemoorman/2019/04/23/why-social-media-performance-lags-even-as-spending-soars/#6bf820de1baf.
Garg, R., Rahman, Z., Qureshi, M. N., & Kumar, I. (2012). Identifying and ranking critical success factors of customer experience in banks: An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach. Journal of Modelling in Management, 7(2), 201-220.

Gatautis, R., & Medziausiene, A. (2014). Factors affecting social commerce acceptance in Lithuania. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 110(2014), 1235-1242.
Gentile, C., Spiller, N., & Noci, G. (2007). How to sustain the customer experience: An overview of experience components that co-create value with the customer, European Management Journal, 25(5), 395-410.
Grewal, D., Levy, M., & Kumar, V. (2009). Customer experience management in retailing: an organizing framework, Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 1-14.
Gupta, S., & Vajic, M. (2000). The contextual and dialectical nature of experiences. New service development: Creating memorable experiences, 15, 33-51.
Gupta, S., Lehmann, D. R., & Stuart, J. A. (2004). Valuing customers. Journal of Marketing Research, 41(1), 7-18.
Hajli, N. (2015). Social commerce constructs and consumer's intention to buy. International Journal of Information Management, 35(2), 183-191.
Homburg, C., Jozić, D., & Kuehnl, C. (2017). Customer experience management: toward implementing an evolving marketing concept. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(3), 377-401. Huang, Z., & Benyoucef, M. (2015). User preferences of social features on social commerce websites: An empirical study. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 95, 57-72. Hwang, J., & Seo, S. (2016). A critical review of research on customer experience management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Insley, V., & Nunan, D. (2014). Gamification and the online retail experience. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 42(5), 340-351.
Jami Pour, M., & Jafari, S. M. (2019). Toward a maturity model for the application of social media in healthcare: The health 2.0 roadmap. Online Information Review, 43(3), 404-425.
Jaworski, B. J., & Kohli, A. K. (1993). Market orientation: antecedents and consequences. Journal of Marketing, 57(3), 53-70.
Johnston, R., & Kong, X. (2011). The customer experience: a road-map for improvement. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 21(1), 5-24.
Kandampully, J., Zhang, T., & Jaakkola, E. (2018). Customer experience management in hospitality: A literature synthesis, new understanding and research agenda. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(1), 21-56.
Khang, H., Han, E. K. & Ki, E. J. (2014). Exploring influential social cognitive determinants of social media use. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 48-55. King, D. L. (2008). Designing the digital experience: How to use experience design tools and techniques to build websites customers love. Information Today, Inc..
Kumar, A., & Anjaly, B. (2017). How to measure post-purchase customer experience in online retailing? A scale development study. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 45(12), 1277-1297.

Kumar, A., Salo, J., & Li, H. (2019). Stages of User Engagement on Social Commerce Platforms: Analysis with the Navigational Clickstream Data. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 23(2), 179-211.
Lemon, K. N., & Verhoef, P. C. (2016). Understanding customer experience throughout the customer journey. Journal of Marketing, 80(6), 69-96. Liang, T. P., Ho, Y. T., Li, Y. W., & Turban, E. (2011). What drives social commerce: The role of social support and relationship quality. International journal of electronic commerce, 16(2), 69-90.
Libai, B., Bolton, R., Bügel, M. S., De Ruyter, K., Götz, O., Risselada, H., & Stephen, A. T. (2010). Customer-to-customer interactions: broadening the scope of word of mouth research. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 267-282.
Liu, H., Chu, H., Huang, Q., & Chen, X. (2016). Enhancing the flow experience of consumers in China through interpersonal interaction in social commerce. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 306-314. Lu, B., Fan, W., & Zhou, M. (2016). Social presence, trust, and social commerce purchase intention: An empirical research. Computers in Human Behavior, 56, 225-237. Malthouse, E. C., Haenlein, M., Skiera, B., Wege, E., & Zhang, M. (2013). Managing customer relationships in the social media era: Introducing the social CRM house. Journal of interactive marketing, 27(4), 270-280.
Martini, A., Massa, S. & Testa, S. (2014). Customer co-creation projects and social media: the case of Barilla of Italy. Business Horizons, 57(3), 425-434.
McLean, G. J. (2017). Investigating the online customer experience–a B2B perspective. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 35(5), 657-672.
Neslin, S. A., Grewal, D., Leghorn, R., Shankar, V., Teerling, M. L., Thomas, J. S., & Verhoef, P. C. (2006). Challenges and opportunities in multichannel customer management. Journal of Service Research, 9(2), 95-112.
Odoom, R., Anning-Dorson, T., & Acheampong, G. (2017). Antecedents of social media usage and performance benefits in small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 30(3), 383-399.
Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorsers' perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39-52.
Palmer, A. (2010). Customer experience management: a critical review of an emerging idea. Journal of Services Marketing, 24(3), 196-208. Paula, R. M., & Iliuţă, N. C. (2008). Customer Experience management–The most important dimension of the service firm strategy. Analele Universităţii din Oradea, 1171.
Phil Klaus, P. (2015). Customer Experience: The Origins and Importance for Your Business. In Measuring Customer Experience (pp. 1-21). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Ramanathan, U., Subramanian, N., & Parrott, G. (2017). Role of social media in retail network operations and marketing to enhance customer satisfaction. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 37(1), 105-123.

Rose, S., Clark, M., Samouel, P., & Hair, N. (2012). Online customer experience in e-retailing: an empirical model of antecedents and outcomes. Journal of retailing, 88(2), 308-322.
Salo, J. (2012). Customer experience management in the music industry online communities. International Journal of Music Business Research, 1(2), 7-29.
Schaupp, L. C., & Bélanger, F. (2019). Social commerce benefits for small businesses: An organizational level study. In Social Entrepreneurship: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, pp. 1237-1255, IGI Global.
Shaum, S., & Wheeler, J. (2002). Managing the Customer Experience: Turning Customers into Advocates. Prentice hall.
Singh, R., & Das, G. (2013). The impact of job satisfaction, adaptive selling behaviors and customer orientation on salesperson's performance: exploring the moderating role of selling experience. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 28(7), 554-564.
Sohrabi, B., Haghighi, M., & Khanlari, A. (2010). Customer relationship management maturity model (CRM3): A model for stepwise implementation. Journal of Human Sciences, 7(1), 1-20.
Sorooshian, S., Salimi, M., Salehi, M., Nia, N. B., & Asfaranjan, Y. S. (2013). Customer experience about service quality in online environment: A case of Iran. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 1681-1695.
Specht, N., Fichtel, S., & Meyer, A. (2007). Perception and attribution of employees' effort and abilities: The impact on customer encounter satisfaction. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 18(5), 534-554.
Stouthuysen, K., Teunis, I., Reusen, E., & Slabbinck, H. (2018). Initial trust and intentions to buy: The effect of vendor-specific guarantees, customer reviews and the role of online shopping experience☆. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 27, 23-38.
Sun, Z., & Lau, S. K. (2007). Customer experience management in e-services. In E-service intelligence, pp. 365-388, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Temkin, B. D. (2010). Mapping the customer journey. Forrester Research, 3. Totok, A., & Karamcheti, V. (2010). RDRP: reward-driven request prioritization for e-commerce Web sites. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 9(6), 549-561.
Verhoef, P. C., Lemon, K. N., Parasuraman, A., Roggeveen, A., Tsiros, M., & Schlesinger, L. A. (2009). Customer experience creation: Determinants, dynamics and management strategies. Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 31-41. Wang, C., & Zhang, P. (2012). The evolution of social commerce: The people, management, technology, and information dimensions. Communications of the association for information systems, 31(1), 5.
Zablah, A.R., Bellenger, D.N. and Johnston, W. J. (2004). An evaluation of divergent perspectives on customer relationship management: towards a common understanding of an emerging phenomenon. Industrial Marketing Management, 33(6), . 475-489.

Zhang, M., Guo, L., Hu, M., & Liu, W. (2017). Influence of customer engagement with company social networks on stickiness: Mediating effect of customer value creation. International Journal of Information Management, 37(3), 229-240.
Zhou, L., Zhang, P., & Zimmermann, H. D. (2013). Social commerce research: An integrated view. Electronic commerce research and applications, 12(2), 61-68.