Assessing Research and development strategies with customer satisfaction (A case study on automotive battery industries)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. Student in Technology Management, Faculty of Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Management, Faculty of Management, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 School of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Research and development (R&D) department is an essential and critical section for all organizations, which are eager to actively participate in markets and strategies on R&D management. Today’s investment in this field has been approved and all organizations are aware of its role to increase competitive risk. Improving R&D departments and promoting the efficiency of companies can help a country to move toward knowledge-based economy and also assist to stop illogical exchange currency flow to foreign countries against import of technology transfer from them. A problem in a domestic market is the lack of the R&D strategy to produce new products and promote the customer’s satisfaction level in industrial companies. The objective of this research is to introduce a two-phase decision-making approach to assess R&D strategies in automotive battery industries stressing on the customer’s satisfaction parameter. In the first section, the practical strategies on R&D management and the effective indices of the customer’s satisfaction on R&D strategies are recognized. In the second section, weighting coefficients related to customer’s satisfaction indices are reached by utilizing the fuzzy best-worst method (FBWM) as an effective multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method. Moreover, the weight of any individual strategy and their final prioritization is calculated using the analytical method of the interval-valued triangular fuzzy - gray relation analysis (IVTFN-GRA). Based on the results gained from the proposed FBWM, three effective factors in evaluating R&D strategies in an automotive battery industry are recognized. Finally, among the existing strategies, the joint R&D strategy with 0.375 rate is selected


Abbasi, A., & Hatami, L. (2022). Designing a Consumer Behavior Management Framework in the Prevalence of Worldwide Pandemics (Case Study: Covid 19). Consumer Behavior Studies Journal, 8(4), 107-131. (In Persian)
Algesheimer, R., Dholakia, U. M., & Herrmann, A. (2005). The social influence of brand community: evidence from European car clubs. Journal of Marketing, 69(3), 19–34.
An, M. A., & Han, S. L. (2020). Effects of experiential motivation and customer engagement on customer value creation: Analysis of psychological process in the experience-based retail environment. Journal of Business Research, 120, 389-397.‏
Barzegar, Bahman (2017). Investigating the factors affecting the satisfaction of online store customers (Case study: Sat Digi Kala customers). Master Thesis, Koomesh Non-Profit Institute, Semnan. (In Persian)
Bowden, J. L. H. (2009). The process of customer engagement: a conceptualframework. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 17(1), 63–74.
Brodie, R. J., Hollebeek, L. D., Juric, B., & Ilic, A. (2011). Customer engagement: conceptual domain, fundamental propositions, and implications for research. Journal of Service Research, 14(3), 252–271.
Calder, B. J., Malthouse, E. C., & Schaedel, U. (2009). An experimental study of the relationship between online engagement and advertising effectiveness. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(4), 321–331.
Chavez, L., Ruiz, C., Curras, R., & Hernandez, B. (2020). The role of travel motivations and social media use in consumer interactive behaviour: A uses and gratifications perspective. Sustainability, 12(21), 8789.‏
Cheng, J. M. S., Wang, E. S. T., Lin, J. Y. C., & Vivek, S. D. (2009). Why do customers utilize the internet as a retailing platform? A view from consumer perceived value. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 21(1), 144–160.
Choo, C. W. (2000). Closing the cognitive gaps: how people process information. And Marchand, T. Davenport, & T. Dickson (Eds.), mastering information management (pp. 245–253). Harlow: FT-Prentice-Hall.
Gremler, D. D., Gwinner, K. P., & Brown, S. W. (2001). Generating positive word-of-mouth communication through customer-employee relationships. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(1), 44–59.
Gruen, T. W., Osmonbekov, T., & Czaplewski, A. J. (2006). eWOM: The impact of customer-to-customer online know-how exchange on customer value and loyalty. Journal of Business research, 59(4), 449-456.‏
Gummerus, J., Liljander, V., Weman, E., & Pihlström, M. (2012). Customer engagement in a Facebook brand community. Management Research Review, 35(9), 857–877.
Habibi, M. R., Laroche, M. & Richard, M. (2014). The roles of brand community and community engagement in building trust in social media. Computers in Human Behaviour, 37, 125–161.
He, G., Zhang, Y., Jiang, X., & Zhang, J. (2020). Customer Stickiness to" Internet+" Environmental Protection Public Welfare Platforms. In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM) (pp. 817-821).
Heidarzadeh, K., & Hassani Parsa, E. (2012). Investigating the effect of hedonic values ​​on consumer buying behavior. Journal of Marketing Management. 7(17), 17-35. (In Persian)
Hightower, R., Brady, M. K., & Baker, T. L. (2002). Investigating the role of the physical environment in hedonic service consumption: an exploratory study of sporting events. Journal of Business Research, 55(9), 697–707.
Hollebeek, L. D. (2013). The customer engagement/value interface: an exploratory investigation. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 21(1), 17–24.
Hollebeek, L. D., Glynn, M. S., & Brodie, R. J. (2014). Consumer brand engagement in social media: Conceptualization, scale development and validation. Journal of interactive marketing, 28(2), 149-165.‏
Hu, L., Min, Q., Han, S., & Liu, Z. (2020). Understanding followers’ stickiness to digital influencers: The effect of psychological responses. International Journal of Information Management, 54, 102169.‏
Jaakkola, E., & Alexander, M. (2014). The Role of Customer Engagement Behavior in Value Co-Creation A Service System Perspective. Journal of service research, 17(3), 247-261
Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59–68.
Kardani Malekinezhad, M., Khorakian, A., & Rahimnia, F. (2021). Investigating the Effect of Innate Innovativeness on Innovative Consumer Behavior through the mediating role of Domain Specific Innovativness (Case Study: The consumers of Smart Wearable Products). Consumer Behavior Studies Journal, 8(1), 85-104. (In Persian)
Kesari, B., & Atulkar, S. (2016). Satisfaction of mall shoppers: A study on perceived utilitarian and hedonic shopping values. Retailing and Consumer Services, (31), 22-33.
Khalifa, A. S. (2004). Customer value: a review of recent literature and an integrative configuration. Management decision.‏
Kumar, V., Aksoy, L., Donkers, B., Venkatesan, R., Wiesel, T., & Tillmanns, S. (2010). Undervalued or overvalued customers: Capturing total customer engagement value. Journal of service research, 13(3), 297-310.‏
Kumar, V., Aksoy, L., Donkers, B., Venkatesan, R., Wiesel, T., & Tillmanns, S. (2010). Undervalued or overvalued customers: capturing total customer engagement value. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 297–310.
Kuo, Y. F., & Feng, L. H. (2013). Relationships among community interaction characteristics, perceived benefits, community commitment, and oppositional brand loyalty in online brand communities. International Journal of Information Management, 33(6), 948–962.
Mohammadi, F., Nematizadeh, S., Heydari, S. A., & Safarzadeh, H. (2022). Online Customer Experience model in times of Covid19. Consumer Behavior Studies Journal, 8(4), 84-106. (In Persian)
Muniz Jr, A. M., & O’guinn, T. C. (2001). Brand community. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(4), 412–432.
Myung-Ja,k.,Namho ,C.&, Choong-Ki ,L. (2011). The effect of perceived trust on electronic commerce: Shopping online for tourism products and services in South Korea, Tourism Management, Vol. 32, pp: 256-265.
Patterson, P., Yu, T., & De Ruyter, K. (2006). Understanding customer engagement in services. Advancing theory, maintaining relevance, proceedings of ANZMAC2006 conference, Brisbane, 4–6.
Pöyry, E., Parvinen, P., & Malmivaara, T. (2013). Can we get from liking to buying? Behavioral differences in hedonic and utilitarian Facebook usage. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12(4), 224-235.‏
Roux. I., & Maree, T. (2017). Motivation, engagement, attitudes and buying intent of female Facebook users. Acta Commercial - Independent Research Journal in the Management Sciences ISSN: (Online) 1684-1999, 2413-1903.
Seifollahi, N., & Eskandari, N. (2021). Social Media marketing and consumer buying intentions; Mediation of brand Image and awareness. Consumer Behavior Studies Journal, 8(3), 199-220. (In Persian)
Sheth, J. N., Newman, B. I., & Gross, B. L. (1991). Why we buy what we buy: A theory of consumption values. Journal of Business Research, 22 (2), 161-164.
Stewart, D.W. & Pavlou, P. A. (2002). From consumer response to active consumer: measuring the effectiveness of interactive media. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(4), 376-396.
Stock, R. M., Oliveira, P., & von Hippel, E. (2015). Impacts of hedonic and utilitarian user motives on the innovativeness of user‐developed solutions. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(3), 389-403.‏
Van der Heijden, H. (2004). User acceptance of hedonic information systems. MIS quarterly, 695-704.‏
Vivek, S. D. (2009). A scale of consumer engagement (Doctoral dissertation, TheUniversity of Alabama TUSCALOOSA).
Xiaozhou, D. (2019). A study on the relationship among customer behavior stickiness, motivation of shopping and customer value in the online shopping. Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science.‏