Designing a Consumer Behavior Management Framework in the Prevalence of Worldwide Pandemics (Case Study: Covid 19)

Document Type : Qualitative Research Paper


,Department of Management, Faculty of Economics, Management and Social Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


This study provides a framework for how to manage consumer behavior during the outbreak of global pandemic’s by focusing on Covid 19 in a direction that leads to favorable results for retailers. The importance of this research is that at present, due to the spread of epidemic disease and the resulting recession, many changes in consumer behavior can be observed and since retailers are highly influenced by changes in consumer behavior because of their inherent characteristics, having a framework to guide their practice can greatly help them; forasmuch as even in critical situations, by implementing appropriate strategies, business performance can be maintained or even improved. In order to present this framework, qualitative content analysis method with inductive approach was used. The sampling method in the present study is purposeful, after analyzing 27 relevant and valid studies and conducting interviews with experts in the field of consumer behavior by snowball method, the framework for how to manage consumer behavior was presented: This framework includes 4 main categories of transparency, effective communication, community-based behavior and endurance, 16 components and 57 indicators. The reliability of the model was confirmed using the kappa index.


Amis, J. M., & Janz, B. D. (2020). Leading change in response to COVID-19. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 56(3), 272-278.
Andersen, A. L., Hansen, E. T., Johannesen, N., & Sheridan, A. (2020). Consumer responses to the Covid-19 crisis: Evidence from bank account transaction data, 1-29.
Argenti, P. A. (2020, March 13). Communicating through the Coronavirus Crisis, Available at:
Armitage, R., & Nellums, L. B. (2020). COVID-19 and the consequences of isolating the elderly. The Lancet Public Health5(5), 256.
Bailey, A. (2020), 5 Tips to Forge Stronger Relationships with Customers During the Covid-19 Crisis. Available at:
Balis, J. (2020, April 06). Brand Marketing Through the Coronavirus Crisis. Available at:
Bapuji, H., Patel, C., Ertug, G., & Allen, D. G. (2020). Corona crisis and inequality: Why management research needs a societal turn. Journal of Management, 1-18.
Cappelli, A., & Cini, E. (2020). Will the COVID-19 pandemic make us reconsider the relevance of short food supply chains and local productions? Trends in Food Science & Technology, 99, 566-567.
Chou, S. W., & Hsu, C. S. (2016). Understanding online repurchase intention: social exchange theory and shopping habit. Information Systems and e-Business Management, 14(1), 19-45.
Cranfield, J. A. (2020). Framing consumer food demand responses in a viral pandemic. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, 1-6.
Davey, J. W., Gugiu, P. C., & Coryn, C. L. (2010). Quantitative methods for estimating the reliability of qualitative data. Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation, 6(13), 140-162.
Ding, W., Levine, R., Lin, C., & Xie, W. (2020). Corporate immunity to the COVID-19 pandemic, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1-50.
Donthu, N., & Gustafsson, A. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on business and research. Journal of business research, 117, 284-289.
Earley, P. C., & Gibson, C. B. (1998). Taking stock in our progress on individualism-collectivism: 100 years of solidarity and community. Journal of management, 24(3), 265-304.
Eichenbaum, M., Rebelo, S., & Trabandt, M. (2020).  “The Macroeconomics of Epidemics,” Technical Report, National Bureau of Economic Research. 34(11), 1-40.
Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of advanced nursing, 62(1), 107-115.
 Fernandes, N. (2020). Economic effects of coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on the world economy. Available at: SSRN 3557504.
Galletta, A. (2013). Mastering the semi-structured interview and beyond: From research design to analysis and publication. New York : NYU press.
Greeven, M. J., Yu, H., & Shan, J. (2020, June 29). Why Some Retailers Are Thriving Amid Disruption, Available at:
Guan, Y., Deng, H., & Zhou, X. (2020). Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on career development: Insights from cultural psychology. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 1-9.
Guillén, M. F. (2020, July 07). How Businesses Have Successfully Pivoted During the Pandemic. Available at:
Hall, S. (1990). Cultural identity and diaspora, United States: Routledge
He, H., & Harris, L. (2020). The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Corporate Social Responsibility and Marketing Philosophy. Journal of Business Research, 176-182.
Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2020). Socialising tourism for social and ecological justice after COVID-19. Tourism Geographies, 1-14.
Hobbs, J. E. (2020). Food supply chains during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie. 1-14.
Kaur, A., & Malik, G. (2020). Understanding the psychology behind panic buying: a grounded theory approach. Global Business Review, 1-14.
Kim, J. E., & Johnson, K. K. (2013). The impact of moral emotions on cause-related marketing campaigns: A cross-cultural examination. Journal of business ethics, 112(1), 79-90.
Kim, Y. K., Kang, J., & Kim, M. (2005). The relationships among family and social interaction, loneliness, mall shopping motivation, and mall spending of older consumers. Psychology & Marketing, 22(12), 995-1015.
King, R. (2020, July 27), these major retailers are already planning to be closed on Thanksgiving Day because of the pandemic, Available at:
Knowles, J., Ettenson, R., Lynch, P., & Dollens, J.  (2020, May 05). Growth Opportunities for Brands During the COVID-19 Crisis. Available at:
Köksal, M. H., & Özgül, E. (2007). The relationship between marketing strategies and performance in an economic crisis. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 25(4), 326-342.
Kramer, M. R. (2020, April 01). Coronavirus Is Putting Corporate Social Responsibility to the Test, Available at:
Krishna, S. V. (2020). Changing Business Strategies during Pandemic COVID-19. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 22, 33-36.
Laguna, L., Fiszman, S., Puerta, P., Chaya, C., & Tárrega, A. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on food priorities. Results from a preliminary study using social media and an online survey with Spanish consumers. Food Quality and Preference, 1-9.
Leppin, A., & Aro, A. R. (2009). Risk perceptions related to SARS and avian influenza: theoretical foundations of current empirical research. International journal of behavioral medicine, 16(1), 7-29.
Leung K., Bhagat R.S., Buchan N.R., Erez, M., Gibson, C.B. (2005). Culture and international business: Recent advances and their implications for future research. Journal of International Business Studies. 36(4):357–378.
Li, M., Zhao, T., Huang, E., & Li, J. (2020). How Does a Public Health Emergency Motivate People’s Impulsive Consumption? An Empirical Study during the COVID-19 Outbreak in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(14), 1-13.
Li, S., Wang, Y., Xue, J., Zhao, N., & Zhu, T. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: a study on active Weibo users. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(6), 1-9.
Long, N. N., & Khoi, B. H. (2020). An Empirical Study about the Intention to Hoard Food during COVID-19 Pandemic. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(7), 1-12.
Mahmood, C. K., Baharun, R. (2019). Consumer Purchase Decision Models: A Review of Financial Services Context, Asia International Multidisciplinary Conference, 476- 489.
Mathur, A., Moschis, G. P., & Lee, E. (2008). A longitudinal study of the effects of life status changes on changes in consumer preferences. Journal of the Academy of Marketing science, 36(2), 234-246.
Milner, T., & Rosenstreich, D. (2013). A review of consumer decision-making models and development of a new model for financial services. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 18(2), 106-120.
Momeni rad, A., Ali Abadi, K., Fardanesh, H., Mozaieni, N. (2013). Qualitative content analysis in research tradition: nature, stages and validity of the results. Quarterly of Educational Measurement, 4(14), 187-222. (In Persian)
Moorman, C., & McCarthy, T. (2020). How Retailers Can Reach Consumers Who Aren’t Spending, Available at:
Morse, J. M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Olson, K., & Spiers, J. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International journal of qualitative methods, 1(2), 13-22.
Moschis, G. P. (2007). Life course perspectives on consumer behavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science35(2), 295-307.
Naik, C. K., & Reddy, L. V. (1999). Consumer behaviour, New Delhi, india:  Discovery publishing house.
Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and policy in mental health and mental health services research42(5), 533-544.
Pantano, E., Pizzi, G., Scarpi, D., & Dennis, C. (2020). Competing during a pandemic? Retailers’ ups and downs during the COVID-19 outbreak. Journal of Business Research, 1-14.
Saeedi, M. T., Fatemi, F., & Nazari, M. A. (2021). Empirical Study of the "What is Beautiful is Good" Cognitive Bias: A Study on Consumer Purchasing Decisions, Consumer Behavior Studies Journal, 8 (3), 17-32. (In Persian)
Santiago, J. H., & Tarantino, S. J. (2002). Individualism and collectivism: Cultural orientation in locus of control and moral attribution under conditions of social change. Psychological reports, 91, 1155-1168.
Schiffman, L. G., & Wisenblit, J. (2015). Consumer Behavior, Eleventh. England: Pearson.
Schwartz, G. (2020), How to Have Better Customer Conversations During the COVID-19 Crisis. Available at:
Shahabi, V., Azar, A., Faezy Razi, F., & Fallah Shams, M. (2021). Modeling the Impact of Corona Outbreak on Acceptance and Development of Digital Banking. Consumer Behavior Studies Journal, 8 (2), 92-113. (In Persian)
Shamsky, R., Debo, L. (2020, July 24). What Safe Shopping Looks Like During the Pandemic?, Available at:
Sheth, J. (2020). Impact of Covid-19 on Consumer Behavior: Will the Old Habits Return or Die? Journal of Business Research. 280-283.
Söderlund, M. (2020). Employee norm-violations in the service encounter during the corona pandemic and their impact on customer satisfaction. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 57, 1-6.
SSRN 3557504, 1-32.
Stanciu, S., Radu, R. I., Sapira, V., Bratoveanu, B. D., & Florea, A. M. (2020). Consumer Behavior in Crisis Situations. Research on the Effects of COVID-19 in Romania. Annals of the University Dunarea de Jos of Galati: Fascicle: I, Economics & Applied Informatics, 26(1).
Van Eck, E., van Melik, R., & Schapendonk, J. (2020). Marketplaces as Public Spaces in Times of the Covid‐19 Coronavirus Outbreak: First Reflections. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 111(3), 373-386.
Vinkers, C. H., van Amelsvoort, T., Bisson, J. I., Branchi, I., Cryan, J. F., Domschke, K., & van der Wee, N. (2020). Stress resilience during the coronavirus pandemic. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 12-16.
Voinea, L., & Filip, A. (2011). Analyzing the main changes in new consumer buying behavior during economic crisis. International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, 1(1), 14-19.
Wade, M., & Bjerkan, H. (2020, April 17). Three Proactive Response Strategies to COVID-19 Business Challenges. Available at:
Wahba, p. (2020b, July 10), Starbucks speeding up rollout of pickup-only stores in response to pandemic. Available at:
Wahba, P. (2020c, July 14), Best Buy to require shoppers to wear masks in all stores. Available at:
Wahba, P. (2020a, June 5). Shopping by appointment is the next big thing for retailers, but it’s no panacea. Available at:
Waldron, T., & Wetherbe, J. (2020, April 01). Ensure That Your Customer Relationships Outlast Coronavirus. Available at:
Wang, Y., Di, Y., Ye, J., & Wei, W. (2020). Study on the public psychological states and its related factors during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in some regions of China. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 1-10.
Wen, Z., Huimin, G., & Kavanaugh, R. R. (2005). The impacts of SARS on the consumer behaviour of Chinese domestic tourists. Current Issues in Tourism8(1), 22-38.
Wood, M. (2020). Starbucks speeding up rollout of pickup-only stores in response to pandemic. Available at:
Yohn, D., L. (2020, July 06). The Pandemic Is Rewriting the Rules of Retail. Available at:
Zwanka, R. J., & Buff, C. (2020). COVID-19 Generation: A Conceptual Framework of the Consumer Behavioral Shifts to Be Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 1-10.